Ingredients and Benefits: The Detailed Breakdown

If deep diving into the detail is your thing, you've certainly come to the right place. Below we've provided a breakdown of the ingredients included in our Everyday Tablets, with information on what each ingredient is and the benefits each provides.

Vitamin A        Vitamin D3        Vitamin E

Vitamin K        Vitamin C          Thiamine

Riboflavin        Niacin              Vitamin B6

Folic Acid        Vitamin B12      Biotin

Magnesium      Iron                  Zinc

Copper            Manganese      Selenium

Chromium        Iodine              Green Tea Extract

Citrus Bioflavanoids                 Alpha Lipoic Acid

Grape Seed Extract                  L-Methionine

Lysine              Resveratrol        Lycopene

Vitamin A

Vitamin A, also known as retinol, is one of a number of essential vitamins required for maintaining the body's health and balance. Foods rich in vitamin A includes cheeses, eggs, milk and leafy vegetables (1).

Vitamin A has a particularly important role in maintaining the health of skin and eyes. Vitamin A plays a vital role in converting light that hits your eyes into electrical signals that are sent to the brain. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children (2), with night blindness (nyctalopia) being one of the first symptoms of vitamin A deficiency in adults (3).

In addition to eye health, vitamin A also plays a vital role in maintaining the body's immune system. It is not only involved in building mucous barriers to help trap bacteria, but it is also involved in the production and function of white blood cells that help clear pathogens from the body's bloodstream. Vitamin A deficiency can, therefore, lead to increased susceptibility to infections and delayed recovery from illness (4).

Vitamin D3

Often called the "sunshine vitamin", the body synthesises vitamin D in the skin from its exposure to sunlight. It is estimated that approximately 1 in 5 people in the UK low vitamin D levels (5), an issue accentuated by changes in the season.

Vitamin D has a crucial role in maintaining healthy bones, teeth and muscles, in addition to supporting the normal function of the immune system. This is due to its crucial role in regulating the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body (6).

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant, meaning that it prevents oxidation and helps reduce the production of free radicals that cause damage to cells, proteins and DNA in the body. This damage is often associated with conditions such as arthritis, ageing and heart disease.

Vitamin E also helps maintain healthy eyes and skin, in addition to helping support the body's immune system, protecting against diseases and infection (7).

Vitamin E deficiency is typically very rare due to availability in a wide range of foods, in addition to the body being able to store any vitamin E that is not immediately needed for future use. Vitamin E deficiency usually, therefore, arises as a result of irregularities in dietary absorption or metabolism (8).

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is needed by the body for blood clotting which helps with the healing of wounds (9).

Vitamin K also works with Vitamin D to help the body regulate calcium levels, therefore, helping maintain bone health and strength by increasing the mineral density of bones. Vitamin K has also been known to improve cardiovascular health by mitigating the build up of calcium on arterial walls (10).

Vitamin C

Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid) is a powerful antioxidant and essential vitamin that the body cannot produce itself. Vitamin C is water soluble, meaning that the body cannot store it and regular intake is therefore needed to ensure the body gets sufficient amounts (11).

In addition to its antioxidant properties, vitamin C is also crucial for the creation of collagen, which is a protein in the body and a major building block of skin, muscles, bones, tendons and ligaments (12). Therefore, without the intake of vitamin C to allow for the creation of collagen, these tissues begin to break down leading to issues such as scurvy, which can cause muscle and joint pains, bleeding gums and fatigue (13).

Vitamin C's antioxidant properties help prevent oxidative stress and the consequent creation of free radicals, therefore, protecting the body's cells from these harmful molecules (14). These antioxidant properties also help support the proper function of the body's immune system, in addition to encouraging the production of white blood cells to help the body fight against infection (15). 

Vitamin C also has been shown to help with the body's absorption of iron, particularly iron from plant-based sources, therefore, providing additional benefit for those on meat-free diets. The increased absorption of iron in turn leads to improved energy and cognitive function (16).

Thiamine

Thiamine was the first of the B-complex vitamins discovered, hence why it's also known as vitamin B1. As per all B-complex vitamins, thiamine is water-soluble and subsequently regular intake is required as it cannot be stored in the body.

Thiamine is important for the metabolism of carbohydrates, breaking these carbohydrates down and converting them into glucose to help provide the body with energy (17).

Thiamine also helps keep the nervous system healthy (18), and appears to help nerve cells by assisting the development of the myelin sheath that protects them (19).

Although not common, thiamine deficiency can cause beriberi disease, giving rise to weakness, fatigue, psychosis and nerve damage (20).

Riboflavin

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is another B-complex vitamin involved in energy metabolism. Riboflavin assists with the breakdown of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, playing a vital role in the energy release from foods consumed. Particularly, riboflavin helps convert carbohydrates into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which helps with the production and storage of energy in muscles (21).

The intake of riboflavin has also been shown to help with the absorption and activation of iron, folic acid and other B-complex vitamins such as B1, B3 and B6, therefore, further accentuating the benefits gained from these ingredients.

Riboflavin also helps with keeping skin, eyes and the nervous system healthy (22). Studies have shown that photoreceptors in the eyes require riboflavin to help them adapt to darkness, therefore, helping improve night vision. Deficiency in riboflavin has even been shown to cause the development of cataracts, which is clouding of the eye's lens, a leading cause of vision loss for people of over 40 (23).

Niacin

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, cannot be stored in the body and, therefore, daily intake is required. As per other B-complex vitamins, one of niacin's main benefits is helping with the release of energy from foods consumed.

Niacin has been shown to have beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, lowering levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and raising levels of "good" HDL cholesterol (24). In addition to this, niacin also helps keep skin healthy by helping protect skin cells from sun damage (25). It is also crucial for ensuring proper function of the nervous system and the liver (26).

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is also known as pyridoxine. Vitamin B6 has a crucial role in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, in addition to the creation of red blood cells and neurotransmitters (27).

Due to its role in the creation of neurotransmitters, vitamin B6 has an important role in the regulation of moods and emotions by helping control dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels (28).

Vitamin B6 has also been shown to reduce the levels of homocysteine in the blood, which is an amino acid that has been linked to depression and other psychiatric issues (29). High levels of homocysteine is also considered a possible contributory factor to cognitive impairment and possibly even Alzheimer's (30).

One of the most significant benefits of vitamin B6 is its role in the production of haemoglobin (22). Haemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body, and returns carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Therefore, without sufficient haemoglobin, the body becomes weak, tired and anaemia may develop.

Vitamin B6 also helps the thyroid use iodine for the purpose of creating thyroid hormone. Therefore, deficiency in B6 can give rise to muscle weakness (31).

Folic Acid

Folic acid is the synthesised form of folate, also known as vitamin B9. Folic acid helps the body produce red blood cells, therefore, mitigating the risk of anaemia and its associated effects such as tiredness, heart palpitations, diarrhoea, loss of appetite (32).

Folic acid has also been shown to reduce the risk of brain and spine birth defects in unborn babies, such as spina bifida, a neural tube defect (22).

Folic acid helps the body help and maintain new cells, preventing damage and helping repair DNA. It has also been linked to the reduction of homocysteine levels in the blood, a substance contributing to heart disease and stroke when in high concentration (33).

Vitamin B12

Also known as cobalamin, vitamin B12 has a similar role to folate / folic acid in that it is vital for proper red blood cell formation. B12 deficiency can cause red blood cells to become irregularly shaped giving rise to anaemia, where the body is not able to effectively transport oxygen around the body causing fatigue and weakness (32).

Studies have also shown that B12 may play a role in brain health by preventing brain atrophy, which is the loss of neurons often associated with memory loss or dementia (34).

Vitamin B12 may also improve your mood. It is thought that B12 may play a role in the production and synthesis of serotonin, a key hormone that stabilises our mood, feelings of well-being and happiness. Some studies show a B12 deficiency to be linked to severe depression (35).

Biotin

Also known as vitamin B7, biotin is required for proper metabolism of the three macronutrients, carbohydrates, fats and protein, helping to convert these foods into energy (36).

Biotin also improves your body's keratin infrastructure and may improve the strength and health of hair, nails and skin. Biotin deficiency can, therefore, lead to the thinning and loss of hair, including skin rashes and brittle nails (36).

Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic Acid is also known as vitamin B5 and, similar to other B vitamins, it is involved in the release of energy from foods, in particular fatty acids.

Deficiency in pantothenic acid is rare. However, when seen it can give rise to headaches, fatigue, restlessness, disturbed sleep and digestion issues (37).

Magnesium

Magnesium is a mineral known to facilitate biochemical reactions in the body completed by enzymes, over 600 biochemical reactions in fact. These range from the conversion of foods into energy to the regulation of neurotransmitters in the nervous system (38).

Some studies have shown magnesium to improve exercise performance by increasing the availability of glucose in the blood, muscles and brain (39).

There is also evidence of magnesium improving bone health by developing bone density and improved bone crystal formation. Additionally, magnesium may also indirectly benefit bone health further by helping regulate calcium and vitamin D levels (40).

Studies also show magnesium as helping lower blood pressure in those with hypertension, in addition to assisting with the prevention of headaches due to its effect on neurotransmitters and blood vessel constriction (41) (42).

Iron

Iron is an essential vitamin well known for its role in the production of haemoglobin, which is the protein in red blood cells that helps the blood transport oxygen around the body. Iron is, therefore, effective at tackling dizziness, fatigue and weakness that may be caused by anaemia (i.e. low levels of haemoglobin) (43).

The positive impact on haemoglobin levels also means that iron has a positive effect on athletic performance due to greater oxygen delivery that improves overall muscle endurance and tissue repair (44).

Studies show iron to also have a role in strengthening the immune system. This is again due to its role in helping provide cells, tissues and organs with oxygen which, in turn, allows for the body to better fight off diseases and infections (45).

Further studies also link the maintenance of proper iron levels to both improved cognitive function and concentration (46), in addition to an improved quality of sleep (47).

Zinc

Zinc is an essential mineral that cannot be produced or stored in the body. Consequently, the body requires a constant supply from foods ingested. The second most abundant trace mineral in the body after iron, zinc is present in every cell (48).

Zinc supports the immune system by facilitating cell signalling which promotes good immune system response (49).

In addition to its beneficial impact on immune response, zinc also plays a crucial role in collagen synthesis and also has anti-inflammatory properties. Subsequently, zinc is crucial for the proper healing of wounds and is often used in hospitals to treat skin injuries (50).

Zinc also plays a role in the body's metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins (51).

It's estimated that around 2 billion people worldwide have some level of zinc deficiency (52), which can have a detrimental impact on the immune system.

Copper

Copper is another essential trace mineral. Copper contributes to the absorption of iron and works with iron to enable the creation red blood cells and haemoglobin. Copper is also crucial in helping maintain a healthy immune system due to its role in the creation of white blood cells that help fight off pathogens (51).

Copper plays a vital role in maintaining collagen and elastin, in addition to having expected antioxidant properties. Both these factors help prevent the ageing of skin (53).

Copper is also used by enzymes that produce melanin, a pigment that greatly impacts both skin and hair colour. Consequently, copper deficiency can give rise to pale skin and also the premature greying of hair (54).

Manganese

An essential trace mineral, manganese is involved in the creation and activation of certain enzymes in the body that help with the metabolism of foods into energy (52).

Manganese is also essential for bone health and combines with other nutrients such calcium, zinc and copper to help improve bone mineral density (55).

Manganese has strong antioxidant properties and is part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). These antioxidant properties help protect against free radicals which cause damage to cells and contribute to ageing, heart disease and some cancers (56). 

There is also some research that shows manganese as having a role in the regulation of blood sugars, with some studies showing people with diabetes as having lower manganese blood levels (57).

Selenium

Selenium is an essential mineral that helps with immune system function and also helps prevent damage to cells and tissues (52).

Selenium prevents damage to cells and tissues due to its antioxidant properties. As an antioxidant, selenium lowers oxidative stress, which in turn reduces the amount of free radicals that cause damage to cells and tissues. This reduction in free radicals helps the healthy growth of hair and skin cells, in addition to helping reduce inflammation and strengthening the responsiveness of the immune system (58).

Selenium is also important for proper function of the thyroid gland, playing an essential role in the production of thyroid hormones. These thyroid hormones help regulate the body's metabolism and also control growth and development (59).

Chromium

Chromium is a trace mineral which is thought to help with the body's response to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that has an important role in signalling when sugars in the blood need to be absorbed into cells. For those with diabetes, the body does not have a normal response to insulin. Several studies have shown that chromium can help improve blood sugar levels for those with diabetes due to improved insulin response (60).

Iodine

Iodine is a mineral involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These thyroid hormones control the body's metabolism. Iodine is also linked to development of the brain, nervous system, cognitive function and bone health (61).

Deficiency in iodine can lead to hypothyroidism, which can lead to swelling of the thyroid gland, fatigue, hair loss, dry skin, weight gain and constipation (62).

Green Tea Extract

Green tea extract is the concentrated form of green tea, a tea made from the Cemillia sinensis plant which is one of the most commonly consumed teas in the world.

Green tea extract has a very high antioxidant content, helping reduce oxidative stress, mitigate the creation of free radicals and, therefore, limiting the damage to cells done by these free radicals  (63).

Reducing oxidative stress also helps mitigate the build up of fat in the blood, reducing inflammation of the arteries and consequently reducing blood pressure and lowering cholesterol (64).

The majority of the antioxidants in green tea are made up of polyphenol antioxidants called catechins, including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). EGCG is one of the most researched antioxidants thought to have the most health benefits. EGCG has been shown to protect brain cells from oxidative stress, slowing the rate of mental decline and the spread of brain diseases (65).

EGCG is also thought to help improve overall brain function, with one study showing increased brain function and task performance among those consuming green tea extract (66).

The mix of both catechins and caffeine in green tea extract is thought to help weight loss. This is due to catechins and caffeine both being substances that regulate hormones in the body that enhance thermogenesis (67), which is the process by which your body burns calories digesting food and producing heat. Studies have shown a higher calorie burn for those regularly ingesting green tea extract (68).

Studies also show other benefits of green tea extract to include improved skin health (69), better exercise recovery (70) and improved blood sugar regulation (71).

Citrus Bioflavanoids

One of the lesser known nutrients, bioflavanoids is the term used to describe a group of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds that have potent antioxidant power (72), mitigating oxidative stress in the body and reducing the amount of free radicals that cause damage to cells.

Some research has shown these antioxidant properties to potentially lead to reduced allergies originally caused by excessive oxidative stress, in addition to improved cardiovascular health (73).

Bioflavanoids may also protect nerve cells from damage, with some studies suggesting bioflavanoids help delay the onset of certain diseases linked to the nervous system (74).

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Alpha Lipoic Acid is a naturally occurring compound with powerful antioxidant properties. Helping to fight against free radicals caused by oxidation, alpha lipoic acid reduces damage to cells in addition to also regenerating other antioxidants such as vitamin C, E and coenzyme Q10, therefore, compounding the benefits gained (75).

Studies have linked the antioxidant properties of alpha lipoic acid to both reduced skin ageing and improved skin UV protection (76), in addition to the reduction of inflammation (77) and protection of the nervous system (78). Alpha lipoic acid has also been linked to possible improvements in heart health and circulation (79).

Grape Seed Extract

Rich in a variety of antioxidants including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes, grape seed extract provides many of the benefits linked to reduced oxidative stress.

Studies have found grape seed extract to help reduce blood pressure (80), improve blood flow (81) and possibly reduce the oxidation of fats in the blood, which is a known risk factor for heart disease (82).

With its high flavanoid content, grape seed extract may also help increase bone density and strength by improving collagen synthesis (83), in addition to protecting cells in the brain and nervous system, therefore delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases (84).

L-Methionine

L-Methionine (methionine) is a naturally occurring essential amino acid that the body itself cannot produce and, therefore, it must be obtained from foods consumed.

Methionine helps the body produce important molecules in the body, building proteins and other tissues. The key element of methionine is sulfur, with sulfur being essential for the body to manufacture keratin in the hair shaft, therefore, promoting the health, strength and shine of hair.

Methionine's role in the creation of new proteins has also been linked to skin health and elasticity, in addition to the strengthening of nails (85).

Lysine

Lysine is another essential amino acid that the body itself cannot produce and, therefore, it must be obtained from foods consumed.

Due to its role in the production of proteins, lysine can help with the development and recovery of muscles, therefore, improving athletic performance by stimulating muscle synthesis and repairing damaged tissues (86).

Studies also show lysine as benefitting bone health due to its role in increasing calcium absorption in the gut and helping kidneys retain calcium (87).

Lysine may reduce anxiety, with studies showing that it may block receptors that are involved in stress response and reduce cortisol levels, a hormone made when the body is under stress (88).

Other benefits of lysine include protection against cold sores (89), assisting with collagen production in the skin that helps wound healing (90), and aiding the production of melatonin that assists with sleeping patterns (91).

Resveratrol

Resveratrol is a plant based compound with antioxidant properties. Found in grapes, berries, peanuts and red wine, resveratrol provides many of the benefits typical of powerful antioxidants, such as helping lower blood pressure (92), reducing blood cholesterol (93), and reducing the rate of cognitive decline (94).

Studies have also shown resveratrol as improving the body's sensitivity to insulin, therefore reducing complications from diabetes (95). Resveratrol may also help reduce joint pain due to its potential to reduce inflammation (96).

Lycopene

Lycopene is a plant based nutrient and is the pigment that gives red and pink fruits their colour, e.g. tomatoes, watermelons, grapefruits etc. This is why our tablets have a slight red tinge.

Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect the body from oxidative stress and the subsequent damaging free radicals that are produced from oxidation (97).

Some studies have shown that lycopene may help reduce the progression of some cancer types due to this antioxidant action (98). Lycopene has also been linked to improved heart health (99) and reduced LDL cholesterol (100).

Lycopene may also provide some protection from the sun, with studies showing reduced skin damage from UV rays after consuming lycopene (101).

Other benefits may include eye health with the prevention of cataracts, protection to the brain and contribution to stronger bones (102).

 

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